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What is ADHD?

What is ADHD?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder that affects how you pay attention, sit still, and control your behavior. It happens in children and teens and can continue into adulthood.

Until now, the main cause of ADHD is not known with certainty. However, this condition is thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors.

There are 3 types of ADHD:

  • Dominant Hyperactivity-impulsivity

Children with this type of ADHD generally have hyperactivity problems accompanied by impulsive behavior.

  • Intentive Dominant

People with this type of ADHD have a hard time paying attention to one thing at a time. Children with this condition tend not to pay attention well.

  • Combination of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention

This third type is a combination of all symptoms. In this type, the child shows characteristics of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and cannot pay attention well.

ADHD Causes

It can be hard to diagnose ADHD, especially in children. No one test will spot it. Doctors diagnose ADHD in children and teens after discussing symptoms at length with the child, parents, and teachers, and then observing the child’s behaviors.

There are several factors that can increase a child’s risk of developing ADHD, including genetic and environmental factors. ADHD is also thought to be related to disturbances in the pattern of brain electrical flow or brain waves. There are also those who think that hyperactive behavior disorders in children are caused by a sugar rush or excessive sugar consumption. However, this has not been proven true.

More detail, several factors are thought to be related to this condition, including:

  • Genetic factors. Because it can be inherited, the risk of developing ADHD increases if you have a family member with the same illness or other mental illness.
  • Environmental factor. Allegedly related to exposure to lead which is found in paint.
  • Premature birth, ie birth before 37 weeks of gestation, or babies with low birth weight.
  • Mothers who use illegal drugs, consume alcohol, or smoke during pregnancy.
  • Brain damage or injury that can occur during pregnancy or at an early age.
  • Imbalance of brain compounds (neurotransmitters) in the brain or disturbances in brain performance.

ADHD Symptoms

The main symptoms of ADHD are difficulty paying attention, as well as impulsive and hyperactive behavior. People with ADHD generally can’t stay still and always want to move. People with ADHD may also have learning difficulties, such as difficulty reading or writing.

ADHD generally appears in children under 12 years of age. However, in many cases, ADHD symptoms can be seen since the child is 3 years old. ADHD that occurs in children can carry over into adulthood.

There are some common symptoms of this condition, including:

  • Not paying attention

These symptoms include being easily distracted, forgetful, ignoring the person you are talking to, not following directions, unable to complete work or school assignments, easily distracted, lose focus, have problems with regularity, and avoid tasks that require lengthy attention.

  • Hyperactive

These symptoms include always looking excited, talking excessively, having difficulty waiting for their turn, unable to sit still, stamping hands or feet, being restless, unable to sit for long periods of time, running or climbing in inappropriate situations, unable to play calmly. , finds it difficult to relax, often annoys others, and always gives answers before questions are resolved.

  • Impulsive 

This symptom is characterized by risky behavior without thinking about the consequences of its actions.

ADHD diagnosis

Not all children who appear to be very active can be diagnosed with ADHD. There are several steps a doctor will take to diagnose ADHD.

  • Exploring the history of the patient’s disease, family history of the disease, and school records of the sufferer.
  • Carry out a series of physical and psychological examinations that will be carried out by an expert doctor on the sufferer.
  • Conduct interviews or questionnaires with family members, teachers, caregivers, or people who know the sufferer well.
  • Do some imaging tests and laboratory tests to look for other causes.

ADHD Treatment

There are several approaches to treating ADHD. Many symptoms of ADHD can be managed with medication and therapy. Close cooperation among therapists, doctors, teachers, and parents is very important.

ADHD cannot be completely cured, but treatment can relieve symptoms and help sufferers lead a normal life. Some efforts to treat ADHD, including:

  • Medications are commonly used to treat ADHD. These drugs are used to help the person calm down and reduce impulsivity so they can focus more.
  • CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy). This therapy is done to help sufferers change their mindset and behavior when experiencing problems in their lives.
  • Psychological therapy. This therapy aims so that people with ADHD can find solutions to overcome the symptoms of the disease.
  • Social interaction training. This training aims to help sufferers understand socially acceptable behavior in society.

In addition to the sufferer, parents and families should also undergo some therapy in order to adapt and accept the symptoms of people with ADHD.

  • Behavioral therapy. This therapy aims so that parents or caregivers can have strategies to help sufferers in living daily life or dealing with difficult situations.
  • Training for parents with ADHD. This training aims to make parents better understand the behavior of people with ADHD and provide guidance for parents to live life with people with ADHD.

ADHD Prevention

The emergence of ADHD in children cannot be prevented. However, pregnant women can reduce the risk of ADHD in their children by staying away from cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, and drugs, especially during pregnancy. In addition, keep children away from cigarette smoke and exposure to toxic substances.

Dr. Eka

A doctor, wife and mother of three. Spread the world with valid information.

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