4 Stages of Hypovolemic Shock that Need to be Understood
“Not all at once, hypovolemic shock actually occurs in four stages. The cause is loss of blood or too much body fluid.”
Halodoc, Jakarta – Hypovolemic shock is a dangerous condition when the heart cannot get enough blood and oxygen to function properly. This can occur when a person loses more than 20 percent of blood volume.
In addition, this condition can also occur when you lose a lot of fluids after lots of diarrhea, vomiting or sweating. Because this condition makes the organs unable to function properly, medical treatment is needed as soon as possible.
Stages of Hypovolemic Shock
Hypovolemic shock can lead to organ failure, which can be fatal. While the body struggles to meet its oxygen needs, it makes the brain and heart the top priority for receiving oxygen. That is why arms and legs can get cold.
To note, blood in the body takes up about 7 percent of your body weight, which is about 5 liters in someone who weighs 70 kg. In this condition, the body loses a lot of blood or fluids.
Hypovolemic shock occurs in four stages, namely:
- Stage 1
At this stage, the body loses up to 750 cubic centimeters (cc) or milliliters (ml) of blood, up to 15 percent of the total blood volume. Blood vessels constrict slightly to keep blood pressure high. Meanwhile, the heart rate is normal, and the body still excretes as much urine as usual.
- Stage 2
In stage 2 of hypovolemic shock, the body loses 750 to 1,500 ml of blood. Heart rate increases. In addition, the body also begins to draw blood from the limbs and intestines, then sends it to vital organs such as the heart and brain. Blood pressure and urine are still normal, but you may feel anxious.
- Stage 3
At this stage, the body loses 1,500 to 2,000 ml of blood, and blood pressure drops. The body begins to stop producing urine, making you less likely to urinate. Meanwhile, limbs felt cold and clammy, and skin turned pale. You may become confused.
- Stage 4
In stage 4 of hypovolemic shock, the body loses more than 2,000 ml of blood, or more than 40 percent of its total blood volume. Your heart begins to race, but you feel sluggish. Meanwhile, blood pressure becomes very low, and the body passes little or no urine.
What caused it?
Generally, the cause of hypovolemic shock is bleeding, because:
- Fracture around the hip.
- Head and neck injuries.
- Abdominal organ damage. This includes the spleen, liver, and kidneys. For example, due to a car accident or a bad fall.
- Tears in the heart or great vessels, or weak spots in large blood vessels that can burst.
- Problems with the digestive tract, such as an ulcer.
- The embryo grows outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy).
- The placenta peels off the wall of the pregnant woman’s uterus (placenta abruption).
- Ruptured ovarian cyst.
- Heavy bleeding during labor or delivery, or in the following 24 hours.
- A disorder in which the tissue that normally lines a woman’s uterus grows outside of it (endometriosis).
In addition, hypovolemic shock can also occur due to things that do not involve bleeding, such as:
- Diarrhea and vomiting.
- High fever.
- Severe sweating.
- Other gastrointestinal problems such as stomas or fistulas.
- Kidney disease and diuretics.
- Fluid stuck in a part of the body due to conditions such as pancreatitis or intestinal obstruction.
That’s a discussion of the stages of hypovolemic shock and things that could be the cause. If you require further information regarding this condition, downloads Halodoc just ask the doctor via chat.
Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2023. Hypovolemic Shock.
WebMD. Retrieved 2023. Hypovolemic Shock.